In 1975, the Chilean government of Augusto Pinochet made a proposal to Bolivia consisting in a swap of a narrow continuous corridor of Chilean land from the sea to the border between Chile and Bolivia, running parallel to the border between Chile and Peru, making the Lluta River Chile's northern border, in exchange for the same amount of Bolivian territory. , On 27 November 1873 the Antofagasta Nitrate & Railway Company signed a contract with the Bolivian government in which it would have authorized to extract saltpeter duty-free for 25 years. Repsol is one of three companies that dominate the gas sector in Bolivia.  In October 2018, the International Court of Justice issued a final and binding decision that Chile was not obliged to negotiate granting Bolivia sea access. Chile responded by sending a warship to the area in December 1878. The Peruvian rebels and the Chilean army set off on a new campaign against Santa Cruz, defeating the Confederation on the fields of Yungay. Bolivia subsequently became dissatisfied at the arrangement due to the negative financial status of the national budget, especially after the earthquakes that struck Cobija in 1868 and 1877.
Mesa, who was under pressure to speak out on Bolivia's aspirations, put the topic in front of all the presidents of the Americas. The Bolivian government followed through with its determination to file a case with the International Court of Justice on 24 April 2013. Lozada's successor, Carlos Mesa, held a gas referendum with the question: "Do you agree with President Carlos Mesa's policy of using gas as a strategic resource to achieve a sovereign and viable route of access to the Pacific Ocean?"
The border dispute between Bolivia and Chile grew slowly during most of the 19th century over the Atacama corridor, a part of the Atacama Desert which now forms northern Chile. Relations soured even more after Bolivia lost its coast to Chile during the War of the Pacific and became a landlocked country (Bolivia still claims a corridor to the Pacific Ocean). National boundaries in the Atacama region had still not been definitely determined when nitrate, silver and copper deposits were discovered in the area.
In 2015, Morales announced his intention to establish conditional diplomatic relations with Chile in order to achieve Bolivia's aspiration for sovereign access to the Pacific Ocean via Chilean land. Meanwhile, the Peruvian government, eager to promote territorial and economic integration, offered Bolivia a special economic zone for 99 years for exporting the gas at Ilo, the right of free passage, and the concession of a 10 km² area, including a port, that would be exclusively under Bolivian administration. Because of the mountains, the area has rains only 2 to 4 times a century, making it one of the driest places on Earth.
The Chilean president reacted by mentioning Bolivia's refusal to have diplomatic relations with Chile, and with this on mind he offered diplomatic relationships between the two countries here and now. After the independence of Chile (1818) and Bolivia (1825) none of the following governments of both countries cared about defining its borders.  A plan costing US$6 billion was drawn up to build a pipeline to the Pacific coast, where the gas would be processed and liquefied before being shipped to Mexico and the United States (Baja California and California) through a Chilean port, for example Tocopilla. A second treaty in 1874 superseded this, entitling Bolivia to collect full tax revenue between the 23rd and 24th parallels, but fixed tax rates on Chilean companies for 25 years. Factbook > Countries > Bolivia > Geography. , Diplomatic relations between the Plurinational State of Bolivia and the Republic of Chile, Relations following independence from Spain (1818-1828), Santa Cruz and the War of the Confederation (1829-1839), Learn how and when to remove this template message, Treaty of Peace and Friendship of 1904 between Chile and Bolivia, "World Court: Chile not forced to negotiate over Bolivia sea access", Organization of American States (OAS/OEA), Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP), List of presidential trips made by Sebastián Piñera, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bolivia–Chile_relations&oldid=977128950, Articles with Spanish-language sources (es), Articles with dead external links from June 2019, Articles with permanently dead external links, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles needing additional references from May 2012, All articles needing additional references, Articles to be expanded from December 2009, All articles with vague or ambiguous time, Vague or ambiguous time from October 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2016, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 7 September 2020, at 03:06.
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