denmark ww2 resistance

Resistance and Rescue in Denmark. In reality—largely due to the initiative of the permanent secretary of the ministry of foreign affairs Nils Svenningsen[25]—all day-to-day business had been handed over to the Permanent Secretaries, each effectively running his own ministry. The Danish National Bank estimates that the occupation had resulted in the printing press increasing the currency supply from the pre-war figure of 400 million kroner to 1,600 million, much of which ended up in the hands of war profiteers. Despite this, the German war machine was not to be stopped. If the German demands were not met Germany "would no longer be committed by the promises given on 9 April 1940" (the threat of a state of war, a Nazi government, and territorial dismemberment). Such musical gatherings continued throughout August and September, with 750,000 people singing in various festivals as a nonpolitical demonstration of national pride and unity. Strikes influenced by a 1920 nationwide general strike that had been called by labor leaders who demanded constitutional change (see "Danish workers strike for electoral reform (Easter Crisis of 1920), 1920"). However the Danish government had consistently refused to engage in any debate on the "Jewish question" as they insisted there existed no "Jewish question" in Denmark. The government later instructed the army and navy not to obstruct applications from soldiers wishing to leave active duty and join the corps. Britain initially turned down the request due to the risk of civilian casualties, but eventually launched Operation Carthage, a very low level raid by 20 de Havilland Mosquito fighter-bombers escorted by 30 P-51 Mustang fighters. Two of these men were killed later that day. Phil Giltner has worked out that Germany had a "debt" of roughly 6.9 billion Kroner to Denmark as a whole. On 23 April 1940,[4] members of Danish military intelligence established contacts with their British counterparts through the British diplomatic mission in Stockholm, and the first intelligence dispatch was sent by messenger to the Stockholm mission in the autumn of 1940. Most received prison sentences of under four years. The majority of Danes, however, were unwillingly compliant towards the Germans. This evolved into regular dispatches of military and political intelligence, and by 1942-43, the number of dispatches had increased to at least one per week. Another difficult issues was what to do with collaborators who were essentially "following orders" that their own government had given them, such as business executives who had been encouraged to work with the Germans. [40] The situation was worst in the months right before and after the capitulation, when Danish hospitals and doctors were reluctant to treat German refugees.
The arrest of resistance suspects usually led to strikes. The navy managed to scuttle 32 of its larger ships, while Germany succeeded in seizing 14 of the larger and 50 of the smaller vessels (patruljekuttere or "patrol cutters").

Allied victories convinced many Danes that Germany could be defeated. One difficult issue was deciding what to do with collaborators who were essentially "following orders" that their own government had given them, such as business executives who had been encouraged to work with the Germans. The number of Danish Nazis was low before the war and this trend continued throughout the occupation, and was confirmed in the 1943 parliamentary elections, in which the population voted overwhelmingly for the four traditional parties or abstained. (1945) (in Danish). Most received prison sentences of under four years. As a result of the cooperative attitude of the Danish authorities, German officials claimed that they would "respect Danish sovereignty and territorial integrity, as well as neutrality. The Danish government refused to deal with the situation in a way that would satisfy the Germans, who presented an ultimatum to the government, including the following demands, on 28 August 1943: A ban on people assembling in public, outlawing strikes, the introduction of a curfew, censorship should be conducted with German assistance, special (German military) courts should be introduced, and the death penalty should be introduced in cases of sabotage. This showed all Danes that they had an opportunity to make a difference. Following the invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941, many Danish Communists formed resistance cells. Denmark faced some serious economic problems during the war. Although their nonviolent methods of resistance had not ended the occupation, through this resistance the Danes had achieved several goals. Stauning agreed on these terms, since it would effectively make the signing meaningless. It agreed that Kryssing should be sacked in its meeting on 2 July 1941, but this decision was later withdrawn when Erik Scavenius—who had not attended the original meeting—returned from negotiations and announced that he had reached an agreement with Renthe-Fink that soldiers wishing to join this corps could be given leave until further notice. In the intervening days, Danish authorities, Jewish community leaders, and countless private citizens facilitated a massive operation to get Jews into hiding or into temporary sanctuaries.  • Neptune As the war dragged on, the Danish population became increasingly hostile to the Germans. Roughly 900 Danish civilians were killed in a variety of ways: either by being caught in air raids, killed during civil disturbances, or in reprisal killings, the so-called clearing-murders. Resistance workers and sympathizers initially helped Jews move into hiding places throughout the country and from there to the coast; fishermen then ferried them to neutral Sweden. During much of World War II, Denmark was occupied by Nazi Germany.The occupation began with Operation Weserübung on 9 April 1940, and lasted until German forces withdrew at the end of World War II following their surrender to the Allies on 5 May 1945. Its territory and population were too small to hold out against Germany for any sustained period. The first refugees were returned to Germany in November 1946 and the last ones in February 1949. There was an increase in acts of sabotage within Denmark from 1943 on.eval(ez_write_tag([[580,400],'historylearningsite_co_uk-medrectangle-4','ezslot_2',114,'0','0'])); Up to 1943, the Germans within Denmark had had a relatively easy time – for an occupying force. In 1942, the Germans demanded the removal of the Danish military from Jutland but operations continued, this time by plainclothes personnel or by reserve officers, since this group was not included in the evacuation order. Immediately after the war and until about 1970, the vast majority of accounts overrated the degree to which the resistance had been effective in battling against the Germans by acts of sabotage and by providing key intelligence to the Allies.

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