germany declares war on france effects

Knowing the French would pursue, the plan then called for the larger force that had previously been on the eastern front to take trains across Germany and strike through Belgium, in effect closing a gate on the whole French army. [5] Vauban had advocated a system of impregnable fortresses along the frontier to keep France's enemies out. Honoring their guarantee of Poland’s borders, Great Britain and France declare war on Germany. That rationalisation of the frontier would make it far more defensible and define it more clearly in a political sense, but it also created the paradox that Louis's ultimate goals were defensive, but he pursued them by hostile means. [30], Many in Germany reacted negatively to the persecution of the Huguenots, which disabused the Protestant princes of the idea that Louis XIV was their ally against the intolerant practices of the Catholic Habsburgs. Map showing the German invasion of Poland. You can test out of the Armies were expected to support themselves in the field by imposing contributions (taxing local populations) upon a hostile, or even neutral, territory. [12] All of the Reunion claims and annexations were important strategic points of entry and exit between France and its neighbours and were immediately fortified by Vauban and incorporated into his fortress system. [5] He grabbed the necessary territory in the Reunions, a strategy that combined legalism, arrogance and aggression. In 1689 the Duke of Noailles had led French forces there aimed at bringing further pressure to bear on the Spanish by re-igniting a peasant rising against Charles II, which initially broke out in 1687. With the support of Parliament, William III and Mary II declared war on 17 May (O.S. His open Catholicism and his dealings with Catholic France had also strained relations between England and the Dutch Republic, but because his daughter Mary was the Protestant heir to the English throne, her husband William of Orange had been reluctant to act against James II for fear it would ruin her succession prospects. [52] Meanwhile, on the lower Rhine stood the Elector of Brandenburg who, aided by the celebrated Dutch engineer Menno van Coehoorn, besieged Kaiserswerth. Two days earlier, on September 1, 1939, Germany had invaded Poland. In this article (O.S.) [14] Only two statesmen might hope to oppose Louis XIV. Using a combination of aggression, annexation, and quasi-legal means, Louis XIV set about extending his gains to stabilize and strengthen France's frontiers, culminating in the brief War of the Reunions (1683–1684). The Julian calendar as used in England until 1700 differed by ten days (after 1700 the calendar differed by 11 days until Great Britain adopted the Gregorian calendar in 1752). The Emperor, diplomatically outmanoeuvred, was compelled to accept peace in the region by signing the Treaty of Vigevano of 7 October, to which the French immediately acceded. [21], The War of the Reunions was brief and devastating. [72] In contrast Louis XIV had embarked on a policy of overt military intimidation to retain Savoy in the French orbit, and had envisaged the military occupation of parts of Piedmont (including the citadel of Turin) to guarantee communications between Pinerolo and Casale. The States General of the Netherlands and William III brought the Dutch and English into the conflict against France and were soon joined by other states, which now meant the French king faced a powerful coalition aimed at curtailing his ambitions. By the terms of the Treaty of Ryswick, Louis XIV retained the whole of Alsace but in exchange had to return Lorraine to its ruler and give up any gains on the right bank of the Rhine. First, it assumed that the real danger from France was the speed with which they could attack, whereas the Russians were only dangerous if they could be given the time to bring their army to full potential. [73] However, in Catalonia the fighting proved more eventful. Yet there were aggressive commanders: William III, Boufflers, and Luxembourg had the will to win but their methods were hampered by numbers, supply, and communications.

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