human race

[201] Comparability of the information being recorded by officers was brought into question by the Office for National Statistics (ONS) in September 2007, as part of its Equality Data Review; one problem cited was the number of reports that contained an ethnicity of "Not Stated."[202]. "[179], Morning (2008) looked at high school biology textbooks during the 1952–2002 period and initially found a similar pattern with only 35% directly discussing race in the 1983–92 period from initially 92% doing so.

In his work, he contended that social class, colonialism, and capitalism shaped ideas about race and racial categories. [135][136][137], The forces of natural selection have continued to operate on human populations, with evidence that certain regions of the genome display directional selection in the past 15,000 years.[138]. One result of debates over the meaning and validity of the concept of race is that the current literature across different disciplines regarding human variation lacks consensus, though within some fields, such as some branches of anthropology, there is strong consensus. Among the 23 pairs of chromosomes there are 22 pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes.

[83] Deliberate habitat alteration is often done with the goals of increasing comfort or material wealth, increasing the amount of available food, improving aesthetics, or improving ease of access to resources or other human settlements.

Race, the idea that the human species is divided into distinct groups on the basis of inherited physical and behavioral differences. The human body consists of the legs, the torso, the arms, the neck, and the head. [296], Society is the system of organizations and institutions arising from interaction between humans.
Anthropologist Stephan Palmié has argued that race "is not a thing but a social relation";[123] or, in the words of Katya Gibel Mevorach, "a metonym", "a human invention whose criteria for differentiation are neither universal nor fixed but have always been used to manage difference. Human population growth and industrialisation has led to environmental destruction and pollution significantly contributing to the ongoing mass extinction of other forms of life called the Holocene extinction event,[80] which may be further accelerated by global warming in the future. (2009) in 2002–2003 surveyed European anthropologists' opinions toward the biological race concept. Humans have characteristically crowded teeth, with gaps from lost teeth usually closing up quickly in young individuals. An earlier survey, conducted in 1985 (Lieberman et al. 417-437 in, Wilson, William Julius. Another observation is that traits or alleles that vary from one group to another do not vary at the same rate.

Modern scholarship regards race as a social construct, an identity which is assigned based on rules made by society.

", Renato Pinto Venâncio, "Presença portuguesa: de colonizadores a imigrantes" i.e. All human societies organize, recognize and classify types of social relationships based on relations between parents and children (consanguinity), and relations through marriage (affinity). These descendants of H. erectus spread through Eurasia c. 500,000 years ago, evolving into H. antecessor, H. heidelbergensis and H. neanderthalensis. This does not necessitate the use of a racial classification scheme based on unrelated traits, although the race concept is widely used in medical and legal contexts in the United States. The lengths of these stages, however, have varied across cultures and time periods. [18], Kaszycka et al. They found a consensus among them that biological races do not exist in humans, but that race does exist insofar as the social experiences of members of different races can have significant effects on health. [85][86] Most humans (61%) live in Asia; the remainder live in the Americas (14%), Africa (14%), Europe (11%), and Oceania (0.5%). "[178] Nature Genetics now ask authors to "explain why they make use of particular ethnic groups or populations, and how classification was achieved.

[164], A 1998 "Statement on 'Race'" composed by a select committee of anthropologists and issued by the executive board of the American Anthropological Association, which they argue "represents generally the contemporary thinking and scholarly positions of a majority of anthropologists", declares:[165].

[53][54][55][56] The increase in volume over time has affected different areas within the brain unequally—the temporal lobes, which contain centers for language processing have increased disproportionately, as has the prefrontal cortex which has been related to complex decision making and moderating social behavior.
Portuguese presence: from colonizers to immigrants, chap. The types of food consumed, and the way in which they are prepared, have varied widely by time, location, and culture. More than any other creature, humans are capable of using systems of communication for self-expression, the exchange of ideas, and organization, and as such have created complex social structures composed of many cooperating and competing groups. The study showed that the race concept was widely used among Chinese anthropologists. Some religions also have a moral code. [310] War has had a high cost on human life; during the 20th century, it is estimated that between 167 and 188 million people died as a result of war. Fossils of anatomically modern humans that date from the Middle Paleolithic (about 200,000 years ago) include the Omo-Kibish I remains of Ethiopia[38][39][40] and the fossils of Herto Bouri, Ethiopia. Humans use tools more frequently and effectively than any other animal: they are the only extant species to build fires, cook food, clothe themselves, and create and use numerous other technologies and arts. at the time of a stop and search or an arrest: White – North European (IC1), White – South European (IC2), Black (IC3), Asian (IC4), Chinese, Japanese, or South East Asian (IC5), Middle Eastern (IC6), and Unknown (IC0). "[101], A 2002 study of random biallelic genetic loci found little to no evidence that humans were divided into distinct biological groups.

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