student feedback theory

Quality Indicators for Learning and Teaching. They can be profitably focused on the role of feedback in ongoing learning, how effective feedback cycles can be developed, and the challenges of using feedback productively. A key teacher role is to communicate the rationale for enabling activities; explain how they operate, elaborate the potential benefits for students, and address challenges that students might encounter. Thirdly, learning activities in which students discuss feedback together are particularly useful (Price, Handley, and Millar 2011).

For feedback processes to be enhanced, students need both appreciation of how feedback can operate effectively and opportunities to use feedback within the curriculum. 154 0 obj

We now propose a set of inter-related features that serve as a framework underpinning student feedback literacy.

2011). This research was supported by the General Research Fund (GRF) of the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong, [Project Number 17615217]. 152 0 obj 2017a). Students need motivation, opportunities and means to act on feedback (Shute 2008). Firstly, there is a need for meta-dialogues between teachers and students about feedback processes. <>/Border[0 0 0]/Contents(Professional and Organizational Development Network in Higher Education)/Rect[400.937 607.0547 540.0 619.9453]/StructParent 4/Subtype/Link/Type/Annot>> Student feedback literacy denotes the understandings, capacities and dispositions needed to make sense of information and use it to enhance work or learning strategies. Educators offer feedback to learners to help them improve “knowledge and skill acquisition,” as well as motivate learning (Schute, 2008). Thus, to be effective, feedback should always be constructive (helpful). Without the skills to interpret comments received, few students are successful in acting on feedback (Robinson, Pope, and Holyoak 2013). xref It is proposed that a combination of the three features at the top of the figure maximises potential for students to take action as illustrated at the base of the figure. 158 0 obj These pedagogical implications are broadly consistent with social constructivist learning theories. Its further investigation could include feedback literacy at postgraduate levels or in the workplace. endobj develop capacities to make sound academic judgments about their own work and the work of others; participate productively in peer feedback processes; refine self-evaluative capacities over time in order to make more robust judgments. Lower achieving students are often relatively weak at self-evaluating their performance and frequently conflate effort with quality (Boud, Lawson, and Thompson 2013). Multiple exemplars can be used to emphasise that quality is manifested in various ways (Sadler 1989). Capable students are often pro-active in seeking out feedback and striving to understand what teachers look for in assignments; i.e.

Meta-dialogues provide opportunities to facilitate students’ appreciation of feedback processes and narrow gaps between teacher and student perceptions of feedback. Students need to experience the value of feedback so that its benefits are appreciated. Making judgments involves the implicit or explicit application of criteria. To make the most of feedback processes, students need to be developing evaluative judgment: capability to make decisions about the quality of work of oneself and others (Tai et al. Learners are more likely to change what they do only when they have formed their own judgments that this is necessary (Boud and Molloy 2013). With respect to other possibilities for future research into feedback literacy, a variety of approaches could be adopted ranging from surveys to more fine-grained qualitative research into student feedback literacy. Sutton (2012) put the notion of feedback literacy on the agenda from an academic literacies perspective and defined it as the ability to read, interpret and use written feedback.

<>/MediaBox[0 0 612 792]/Parent 148 0 R/Resources<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageC]/XObject<>>>/Rotate 0/StructParents 0/Tabs/S/Type/Page>> In this article, we propose that the characteristics of effective feedback and feedback processes are related to a specific learning theory from which learners, either students or teachers, are facilitated. Hattie and Timperley’s (2007) model of feedback to enhance learning suggests that feedback operates at four levels. A standard peer feedback or peer review sequence is that learners produce a draft assignment, receive feedback from peers and then revise the same assignment (Nicol, Thomson, and Breslin 2014). Some ways in which these two enabling activities can be re-focused more explicitly towards developing students’ feedback literacy are elaborated.

endobj Enabling activities are only likely to be successful in developing student feedback literacy if teachers create suitable curriculum environments for active learner participation, and also provide related guidance, coaching and modelling. Our orientation towards feedback research and practice is informed by the interplay between social constructivist learning theories and the notion of tacit knowledge. Approaches that emphasise feedback as telling are insufficient because students are often not equipped to decode or act on statements satisfactorily, so key messages remain invisible (Sadler 2010). Exemplars are not model answers but samples to be analysed and compared with work in progress.

startxref Engaging students in improving their capacity to make sound judgments is challenging unless there are sustained opportunities for comparison with the views of others (Boud, Lawson, and Thompson 2013).

Exemplars should be seen not as models but as opportunities for dialogues that clarify the characteristics of quality work and develop student capacities in making judgments.

Within assessment designs, teachers facilitate opportunities for student development of feedback literacy through coherent iterative sequences in which students generate, receive and use feedback. One of the main barriers to effective feedback is generally low levels of student feedback literacy. Four features of student feedback literacy are proposed as a framework for student feedback literacy: appreciating feedback; making judgments; managing affect; and taking action. In another study, annotated exemplars were posted on the LMS and although students reported finding the exemplars useful, they resisted the invitation to discuss online as they hesitated to reveal their thinking publicly (Handley and Williams 2011).

Students often find assessment criteria too dense and abstract to enable them to make judgments about quality, preferring instead exemplars which they perceive as more accessible illustrations of quality (Carless 2015). It is also the measure of a good leader – the ability to inspire people to push through the discomfort, buy-into the reality that nothing worth doing is ever easy, and grow into … << /Length 5 0 R /Filter /FlateDecode >> 0000008699 00000 n In this section, we review the extent to which students understand and appreciate feedback processes; their development of capacities in making academic judgments; how students manage affective factors; and student uptake and action in response to feedback. The most powerful single influence on achievement is feedback but impacts are highly variable, which indicates the complexity of maximising benefits from feedback (Hattie 2009). Research investigating student progress in acquiring feedback literacy might usefully be of a longitudinal design and be combined with interventions to promote feedback literacy. The implications discuss recommendations for teaching; propose an enhanced role for learning management systems (LMSs) in enabling student feedback literacy; and set out some future research directions. 2014). Teachers are identified as playing important facilitating roles in promoting student feedback literacy through curriculum design, guidance and coaching. 0 Skilful teacher-orchestrated discussion of exemplars highlights key aspects of quality work and clarifies the reasoning behind teacher judgments (To and Carless 2016).

Increasingly common discourses of students as consumers may also reinforce instrumental attitudes to learning and inhibit students from taking responsibility for developing their own knowledge and skills (Bunce, Baird, and Jones 2017). Based on their secondary school experience, students may have limited absolutist beliefs about knowledge and prefer to receive unequivocal corrective feedback (O’Donovan 2017). Modelling the uptake of feedback is an important but underplayed part of a teacher’s repertoire in supporting and encouraging students to use feedback. 0000002738 00000 n

Peer feedback needs to be appreciated by learners and include purposeful coaching. cue-conscious or cue-seeking behaviours identified in the literature (Miller and Parlett 1974; Yang and Carless 2013). e d u / p o d i m p r o v e a c a d)/Rect[230.8867 205.4641 449.1387 217.1828]/StructParent 5/Subtype/Link/Type/Annot>> Feedback literacy is not just a tool for doing better in university studies but a core capability for the workplace and lifelong learning. Information may come from different sources e.g.

Learning from examples of different genres is part of induction into academic discourses.

4. stream Significantly for feedback literacy, by enabling students to develop better appreciation of quality work and narrowing differing perceptions between teachers and students, exemplars play a role in facilitating student engagement with feedback messages (Handley and Williams 2011; To and Carless 2016). Students with well-developed feedback literacy appreciate their own active role in feedback processes; are continuously developing capacities in making sound judgments about academic work; and manage affect in positive ways. 0000006047 00000 n 0000014781 00000 n

Higher Education Funding Council for England. Figure 1.

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