tyrannosaurus rex

This fierce carnivore was optimally built for crunching through its meals, with a stiff skull that allowed it to channel all the force of its muscles into one bite—delivering up to six tons of pressure. The Tyrannosaurus appears in Dino Hunter: Deadly Shores in Region 1. After years of legal disputes between the paleontologists who found the skeleton and the owner of the land it was found on, Sue sold for over $8 million to the Field Museum of Chicago and is now where it currently resides on display for the world to see. The teeth in the premaxilla (front upper jaw) were relatively small and closely packed, D-shaped in cross-section, had reinforcing ridges on the rear surface, were incisiform (their tips were chisel-like blades) and curved backwards, which all would have reduced the risk of the teeth breaking when Tyrannosaurus bit and pulled. These are most prevalent along the top of the snout, the crest ridges above the eye, and on the cheek of the upper jaw. In life Tyrannosaurus would have had eyes the size of softballs and were capable of seeing long distances with very good depth due to them being forward-facing, giving it binocular vision. It's believed if this was the case, the smaller, faster juveniles would have acted as the pursuers who would drive weaker individuals away from their herds and chased them into the slower but stronger adults, who would end the job with a quick, powerful bite to a vital area. In January 2020, a study of the fossils of Nanotyrannus—a smaller tyrannosaur that was believed to have lived alongside T. rex—revealed that the bones were more likely from a juvenile T. rex than another species.

Once the matrix had been completely cleaned from the bones, analysis was able to be done on them and found that the skeleton was around 70% complete and likely belonged to a Tyrannosaurus that was bigger than any that had been seen before. Tarbosaurus was at one point considered to be a second Asian species of Tyrannosaurus, but, despite similarities between the two, there are enough distinct traits between the two taxa that Tarbosaurus is now usually referred to as its own species, Tarbosaurus bataar. Perhaps the paleo beast crossed over about 67 million years ago when the seaway between Asia and North America receded, the researchers said. The largest known specimen, RSM P2523.8 (AKA "Scotty"), in life would have measured 12.9 meters (42.6 ft) long, stood 4 meters (13 ft) tall at the hips, and weighed 8870 kg (9.8 short tons). Scientists are unsure whether T. rex hunted alone or in packs. Although T. rex is currently the largest known terrestrial predator in terms of weight, theropods such as Spinosaurus and potentially Giganotosaurus, surpassed Tyrannosaurus in terms of height and length.

An analysis of T. rex's skeletal features showed that the dinosaur king was more similar to two Tyrannosaurs in Asia, Tarbosaurus and Zhuchengtyrannus, than it was to North American Tyrannosaurs, the researchers told Live Science. The earliest known tyrannosauroids were small and covered in feathers. They could only walk briskly at up to 12 miles an hour—likely not fast enough to chase a speeding Jeep, as depicted in the movie Jurassic Park. It was among the last of the non-avian dinosaurs to exist prior to the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event, which wiped out the dinosaurs.

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